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In August 2010, a spider biodiversity exploration yielded 10,426 specimens comprising of 167 species under 97 genera and 19 families. Of these, 21 species (or 12.6% of total species collected) were found to be new to science and they were from seven families, namely: Araneidae (2 spp.), Clubionidae (3 spp.), Lycosidae (5 spp.), Salticidae (2 spp.), Theridiidae (7 spp.) and one each in Thomisidae and Zodariidae. Sixty-six species, 40 genera and two families were added to Hainan spider biodiversity checklist. In decreasing order, the 6 main families were Oxyopidae (4,259 specimens), Araneidae (3,380), Tetragnathidae (1113), Thomisidae (548), Lycosidae (518) and Salticidae (383). The Immatures of the lynx spider, Oxyopes spp. (Oxyopidae) and orb-web spider, Araneus inustus (Araneidae) were most dominant species found. Across the 4 sites, total spider collected were highest in Danzhou (4,036 specimens in 17 families), followed by Lingshui (3,904 spiders in 14 families), Sanya (1,254 spiders in 9 families) and Haikou (1,231 spiders in 11 families). In Danzhou 4 families – Oxyopidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Salticidae were most abundant in while in Lingshui, Araneidae, Oxyopidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae were most abundant. In sSanya 3 families–Tetragnathidae, Oxyopidae and Araneidae dominated Sanya while I Haikou Oxyopidae and Lycosidae were more abundant. Two claw types – trionychus or 3-clawed (9,454 specimens in 10 families or 0.7% of all spider catch) vs. dionychus or 2-clawed (972 in 9 families or 9.3%) and two feeding structures – hunters (5,833 specimens in 13 families, 55.95%) vs web builders (4,593 specimens in 6 families, 44.05%) characterized the spiders from Hainan.
Spider conservation through insecticide reduction and habitat manipulation around rice fields will likely maintain the rich biodiversity.